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Walid Medhioub et al., « Detoxification enhancement in the gymnodimine-contaminated grooved carpet shell, Ruditapes decussatus (Linne) », Archimer, archive institutionnelle de l'Ifremer, ID : 10.1016/j.hal.2009.10.002
In the Gulf of Gabes (Tunisia, Eastern Mediterranean sea), the grooved carpet shell Ruditapes decussatus has been seen to contain persistent levels of gymnodimine (GYM) for several years. The present experimental work represents the first attempt to assess detoxification kinetics of fast-acting toxins (FAT) in marine molluscs fed specific diets of non-toxic algae (Isochrysis galbana). To find an optimal detoxification method, two experiments were performed in which clams were first fed the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia selliformis to artificially contaminate them with GYM, thus simulating the effect of natural toxic episodes. As a second step, the same clams were fed a non-toxic algae, I. galbana. to speed up the detoxification process. Changes in toxin content over the whole experiment were assessed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The first results revealed (i) faster detoxification rates in digestive gland (DG) when clams were fed on L galbana compared with a starved control (no food) and (ii) a typical detoxification pattern, i.e. a rapid drop in toxin content within the first days followed by a secondary slower decrease. GYM levels could be reduced approximately to less than 5% within 7-8 days in clams fed I. galbana, according to the initial toxin levels of 1400 and 9400 mu g GYM/kg of DG, respectively. At the end of the second experiment, DSP mouse bioassay was negative when GYM was less than 100 mu g/kg DG. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.