Decolonial meanings in the New Chilean Canyon: the musical language of Víctor Jara Significations décoloniales dans le nouveau canyon chilien: le langage musical de Víctor Jara Sentidos decoloniais na Nueva Canción Chilena: o idioma musical de Víctor Jara En Fr Pt

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February 25, 2019

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Nueva Cancion Nueva Cancion


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Letícia Porto Ribeiro, « Decolonial meanings in the New Chilean Canyon: the musical language of Víctor Jara », Le serveur TEL (thèses-en-ligne), ID : 10670/1.c5vjzn


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Abstract En Fr Pt

This research aims to analyze how the musicians of the New Chilean Song, particularly Victor Jara, placed themselves as representatives of a specific social class that was racialized, as representatives of an artistic class and a socio-political ideal. For this, in addition to the historical analysis, songs by Victor Jara were analyzed under the bias of musical, phraseological and harmonic analysis, mainly through Nattiez’s musical semiology, combined with the decolonial theoretical perspective and cultural studies. From the knowledge that the musicians of the Nueva Canción Chilena in general and Jara, in particular, sought in their works to propagate the socialist revolution, and, after Allende's election, to support the Popular Unity government, it has the intention of analyze how the lyrics and the music of Jara intertwine with the theme approached by the composer. The Nueva Canción Chilena constituted a musical movement that allied the rescue of songs and folk manifestations to the political and social protest, flourishing in Chile approximately between the years of 1965 and 1973, next to similar movements in America. A study of the Chilean context was made, highlighting the polarization of its political context until the military coup against the government of Salvador Allende in 1973. Next, aspects of the Nueva Canción Chilena were approached, with their historical survey, forms of representation, dissemination, and intertwining with the Chilean elections of 1969. A biographical analysis of Jara was also carried out, with a view to placing the musician/composer within its historical context and within the movement of the New Chilean Song. A bibliographic survey of books, theses, dissertations, scientific articles, newspaper articles, television programs, and documentaries was carried out, as well as an analysis of published articles. The main authors used as a theoretical reference were Walter Mignolo (2005), Enrique Dussel (1992), Aníbal Quijano (2005), Stuart Hall (1998), Roger Chartier (1988), Raymond Williams (1979), Édouard Glissant (2005), Phillip Tagg (2003), Marcos Napolitano (2002) and Franco Fabbri (1981). Questions have been raised about how the musicians, and particularly Víctor Jara, represented themselves and their context, including notions regarding the racialization and domination of imperialist countries or elites, and the ways in which Víctor Jara sought to combine the themes addressed by the lyrics to melodic, harmonic and instrumental aspects.

Cette recherche vise à analyser comment les musiciens de la nouvelle chanson chilienne, en particulier Victor Jara, se sont placés en tant que représentants d'une classe sociale spécifique racialisée, en tant que représentants d'une classe artistique et d'un idéal socio-politique. Pour cela, en plus de l'analyse historique, les chansons de Victor Jara ont été analysées sous le biais de l'analyse musicale, phraséologique et harmonique, principalement à travers la sémiologie musicale de Nattiez, combinée à la perspective théorique décoloniale et aux études culturelles. Sachant que les musiciens de la Nueva Canción Chilena en général et de Jara en particulier, ont cherché dans leurs œuvres à propager la révolution socialiste et, après l'élection d'Allende, à soutenir le gouvernement d'unité populaire, il a l'intention d'analyser comment le les paroles et la musique de Jara se mêlent au thème abordé par le compositeur. La Nueva Canción Chilena a constitué un mouvement musical qui a allié le sauvetage de chansons et manifestations folkloriques à la protestation politique et sociale, florissant au Chili environ entre les années 1965 et 1973, à côté de mouvements similaires en Amérique. Une étude du contexte chilien a été réalisée, mettant en évidence la polarisation de son contexte politique jusqu'au coup d'État militaire contre le gouvernement de Salvador Allende en 1973. Ensuite, des aspects de la Nueva Canción Chilena ont été abordés, avec leur relevé historique, leurs formes de représentation, leur diffusion , et s'entremêlant avec les élections chiliennes de 1969. Une analyse biographique de Jara a également été réalisée, en vue de replacer le musicien / compositeur dans son contexte historique et dans le mouvement de la Nouvelle Chanson Chilienne. Une étude bibliographique des livres, thèses, mémoires, articles scientifiques, articles de journaux, programmes télévisés et documentaires a été réalisée, ainsi qu'une analyse des articles publiés. Les principaux auteurs utilisés comme référence théorique sont Walter Mignolo (2005), Enrique Dussel (1992), Aníbal Quijano (2005), Stuart Hall (1998), Roger Chartier (1988), Raymond Williams (1979), Édouard Glissant (2005) , Phillip Tagg (2003), Marcos Napolitano (2002) et Franco Fabbri (1981). Des questions ont été soulevées sur la manière dont les musiciens, et en particulier Víctor Jara, se représentaient eux-mêmes et leur contexte, y compris les notions de racialisation et de domination des pays ou des élites impérialistes, et la manière dont Víctor Jara cherchait à combiner les thèmes abordés par les paroles de aspects mélodiques, harmoniques et instrumentaux.

O tema da minha pesquisa é o Festival de Sanremo, Festival da canção italiana, um dos principais eventos midiáticos na Itália que acontece todo ano, geralmente no mês de fevereiro. Trata-se de um evento que age como cola social em uma maneira similar com os jogos de futebol e que, como eles, cria uma narrativa interna da sociedade italiana que “vigia e pune” quem acaba ficando fora dela. Por meio de um regime escópico (PERERA, 2014), que entra dentro das casas das/os italianas/os, reproduzem-se, todo ano, as novas implicações de uma fictícia identidade italiana. Neste trabalho, tento discutir exatamente as relações entre o Festival de Sanremo e essa italianidade, e as maneiras como sujeitos periféricos passam a emergir esporadicamente no contexto da normatividade nacional do Festival. Para fazer isso, examinarei um número limitado de estudos de caso, a dizer, as participações de artistas, como Cecile, Rocco Hunt, Aleandro Baldi, Andrea Bocelli e Annalisa Minetti, entre 1992 e 2016. Examinarei um corpus heterogêneo de fontes impressas, online, textuais, sonoras e audiovisuais. Entre as várias fontes críticas usadas, consultadas e/ou enfrentadas, durante o trabalho, destaco o trabalho de Facci e Soddu (2014), Facci (2014), Fabbri e Plastino (2014), Agostini (2014), Perna (2014), Giuliani (2016), Petrovich Njegosh (2014) e Proglio (2016). A minha abordagem crítica avança o trabalho desses autores, pondo em relevo a comunicação e interpenetração entre questões de gênero, raça e “deficiência” e as maneiras como elas acabam sendo tratadas quase da mesma maneira no Festival. De que forma essas questões são silenciadas e esporadicamente ressaltadas no contexto do Festival? Quais são as trajetórias dos sujeitos envolvidos e quais aferições críticas é possível avançar em virtude dessas trajetórias? Em termos de referencial teórico, utilizarei autores como Stuart Hall (2003), Homi Bhabha (1998), Gloria Anzaldúa (1987), John Dickie (1994), Gabriella Gribaudi (1997; 2005) Joseph Pugliese (2002; 2007; 2008), entre outros. No primeiro capítulo, mantendo uma abordagem subjetiva, tentarei discutir as relações entre o Festival de Sanremo e a italianidade, através de significantes como “italiano” e “popular”. No segundo capítulo, focarei nas representações de raça e gênero, trazendo os estudos de caso de Cecile e Rocco Hunt. Enfim, no terceiro capítulo, após uma breve contextualização crítica do conceito de “deficiência”, analisarei as trajetórias de três cantores cegos, no caso Aleandro Baldi, Andrea Bocelli e Annalisa Minetti, durante quatro edições do Festival nos anos 1990.

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